I have already discussed about Linux containers in my previous post. So let’s get started with one of the popular Linux container application “LXC”. Installation is pretty much straight forward. Just do [apt update] # to update your ubuntu repositories [apt upgrade] # to upgrade installed packages [apt…Read more How to install and use LXC (LinuX Container)
Before introduction of VM solutions, data centers were filled with physical servers. So VMware introduced ESX hypervisors and then later Xen and KVM like solutions were introduced for complete hardware virtualization which helped in reducing overall datacenter cost. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) cloud providers such as AWS, Azure uses VMs. If VMs are up…Read more Linux Containers
TCP stack has generic default settings which is optimal for almost all kind of networks. But it allows to change its parameters to better suite your particular network configuration. An optimized or properly configured tcp stack can improve network performance upto 10 times and on the other hand, failing to configure properly will degrade the…Read more How to tune TCP STACK in Linux?
In real world networking, where differect types of networking devices with different capabilities are present, which may stuck our network. That may be due to end devices limitations, intermidiate devices issues or link issues etc. If a device with transmitting capability of 100mbps, sends traffic with same speed to a receiver which could only receive…Read more TCP Congestion control and avoidance
If you are spending lot of time on Linux command line or maintaining a server, probably you may want to keep track of commands which were executed on your machine and knowing the history command usage will speed up your work flow. Linux maintains history in ".bash_history" file by default. It maintains different sessions for…Read more How to use Linux Bash History / history command?
The OS is responsible for managing TCP connections, i.e. It creates socket, establishes TCP connection by 3-way handshake, allocates resources for the socket or connection, transfers data if any and finally terminates the connection and releases allocated resources. If TCP stack is not implemented correctly, it may be unable to release the resourses which in…Read more TCP STATES/ TCP PROTOCOL OPERATION
To analyse packets I will use tcpdump or tshark to capture packets, pyshark or xml python module to parse packets. [tcpdump -D] to find all interfaces [tcpdump -i INTERFACE_NAME -w /PATH/To/FILE.pcap tcp] to capture packets Ex: [root@arch tmp]# tcpdump -D | head -4 1.eth0 [Up, Running] 2.any (Pseudo-device that captures on all interfaces) [Up, Running]…Read more How to analyse TCP headers using Python?